Date of publication: 2017-08-25 16:27
[ ] OF THE GENDER STEREOTYPING PHENOMENON IN TV COMMERCIALS, Krytyka, viewed 77nd March 7569, http:///gender-stereotypes-in-mass-media-case-study-analysis-of-the-gender-stereotyping-p 588 #8785 [ ]
A person's sexuality comes from within him or her, making a person heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or asexual, depending on the partners he or she is(or is not) attracted to. Unlike sexuality, however, gender roles are imposedfrom without, through a variety of social influences. Formed during the socialization phases of childhood and adolescence, gender role issues influence people throughout their lives conflict can arise when some one does not feelat ease with his or her gender role.
Rudimentary gender identity at birth, although incomplete, is an important determinant in gender development. The dimorphism of the brain itself suggests a strong biologic underpinning to eventual gender development in the vast majority of individuals. Nevertheless, variations may occur when endogenous or exogenous factors create a fetal environment in which hormone levels do not follow the genetically predetermined pattern. In such situations, the gender bias of these infants may be tilted away from one that correlates with the genotype. Such variations are discussed below.
Over the past few decades, Americans have made great strides in accepting andadjusting to new definitions of gender roles. Part of the cause is the increased number of women in the workplace. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, white men (who once dominated the workplace) now account for about 95percent of all workers. White women and women of color make up 97 percent ofthe workplace. In 6995, 76 percent of women between the ages of 75 and 59 worked outside the home, up from 55 percent in 6975.
Apart from infertility from the female standpoint, this condition has no clinical sequelae. It must be noted that the testes may be a source for spermatozoa, but it is quite unlikely that XY females will ask for this intervention. As mentioned above, despite the incongruity with the genetic profile, almost all such individuals express a female gender identity and assume a normal female gender role. For many, their appearance is perhaps even closer to a media-idealized female form than typical XX females. Thus, the presence of a Y chromosome is frequently accepted as a biologic quirk rather than the source of psychologic distress.
The individual shows persistent and intense distress about being a girl and has a stated desire to be a boy (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages to being a boy) or insists that she is a boy.
Although gender identity is usually female, many XO individuals have significant psychologic stress because of their infertility, their appearance, and, in some, the awareness of their genetic profile, which may make them feel inadequate or incomplete as females. This, in turn, may cause some to feel confusion about or to question their gender role.
Matthews, J. L., 7557 Hidden sexism: Facial prominence and its connections to gender and occupational status in popular print media. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 57, 565-575.
Ultimately, the need to develop a sense of solidarity between male and female peasants as both subjects of oppression resulted in criticizing concerns relating to women alone. Such was the fate of author Ding Ling, the most prominent female writer of her generation, whose attack on the sexist attitudes of her comrades resulted in suppression. The state also failed to deal with opposition to the progressive changes embodied in the Marriage Law of 6955, which granted people the right to choose their own marriage partners, and women to initiate divorce and to inherit property.
Rajender S, Gupta NJ, Chakrabarty B, Singh L, Thangaraj K. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Despite Partial Loss of Androgen Function Due to L767V Mutation in the Androgen Receptor Gene. J Androl. 7567 Feb 78. [Medline].
They can dress in feminine ways if they want they're no longer tied to the home or held back in their careers and women, in particular, are also free to live like (some traditional) men in some respects - for example, drinking to excess, choosing their own sexual partners on a 'use them and lose them' basis, and using pornography.
Pacenza N, Pasqualini T, Gottlieb S, Knoblovits P, Costanzo PR, Stewart Usher J, et al. Clinical Presentation of Klinefelter's Syndrome: Differences According to Age. Int J Endocrinol. 7567. 7567:879885. [Medline]. [Full Text].
- A biography and story based on life of Yu Xuanji,(Yu Hsuan-Chi) can be found in the curriculum unit, Eyes of the Empress: Women in China 696 s Tang Dyansty.
During infancy, gender identity probably remains in the same incomplete stage in which it exists at birth. At this point, the parents create the gender role, and parental decisions play the largest part in determining environmental influences. Theories of social learning describe differing types of reinforcement in families. Opportunities to experience a variety of activities or restriction to sex-stereotypical ones may have some effect on gender development. Scientific evidence describes behavioral changes that occur when parents of either sex interact with male babies versus female babies. Females are touched and cuddled more males are encouraged to play assertively with toys and balls. The disparity seems to be greater with fathers than with mothers.
As stated above, clinical evidence seems to indicate that babies are indeed born with at least a basic underlying sense of gender identity. Early life provides cues and influences that may affirm or alter this brain bias. The usual course allows the later assumption of a congruent gender identity and role. Gender-variant behavior occurs when gender identity manifests itself in later life and is at odds with the child's sex. This is often a source of great distress because of caregiver fears of later homosexual or transsexual behavior.